Grade 9

Theme: Materials
Unit I: Matter-Nature and Behaviour

Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics – shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation

  • Nature of matter: Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.
  • Particle nature and their basic units: Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers.
  • Structure of atoms: Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars.

Theme: The World of the Living
Unit II: Organization in the Living World

  • Cell – Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes – basic structure, number.
  • Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism: Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).
  • Biological Diversity: Diversity of plants and animals-basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).
  • Health and Diseases: Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes.

Theme: Moving Things, People and Ideas
Unit III: Motion, Force and Work

  • Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
  • Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and Reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum.
  • Gravitation: Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall.
  • Floatation: Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary idea of Relative Density.
  • Work, energy and power: Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy.
  • Sound: Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the Human Ear (Auditory aspect only)

Theme: Natural Resources: Balance in nature
Unit IV: Our Environment

  • Physical resources: Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable
    damages.
  • Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature: Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen

Theme: Food
Unit V: Food Production

Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.